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Region of residence was based on CMAs and rolled up to the provincial level where data were sparse: Atlantic provinces (i. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9. Bootstrap weights were applied to produce robust standard errors. Parameter estimates from these Poisson regression models are exponentiated beta coefficients and represent rate ratios (RRs) for the effect of restaurant density measures on the frequency of eating out or drink intake. Each restaurant density measure was modelled separately because of high correlation between these exposure measures (data not shown). Models were generated for the overall sample and the following age groups to account for any differences in the levels of autonomy of children and youth:Note 15, Note 27 young children aged 1 to 5, older children aged 6 to 11, and youth aged 12 to 17.

Sex-specific models were generated for the two older age groups because of evidence of differential effects of food environment exposures by sex among older children and youth.

Note 31, Note 32, Note 33 Because the question on drink intake was only asked to children and youth aged 3 or older, models predicting the frequency of sugary drink intake grouped younger children as those aged 3 to 11. In the overall sample, the mean frequency of eating out in the past seven days was 2. The median relative density of chain fast-food restaurants from total restaurants was 16.

When a statistically significant association was observed, the effect size was very small (i. Results presented in the table are from separate Poisson regression models. Return to note 1 referrerAdjusted models control for age, sex (except for sex-specific models), household size, education, income, immigrant status and region.

Return to note 2 referrer Table 4 presents associations of restaurant densities with the frequency of sugary drink intake.

For girls, models adjusted for sociodemographic variables revealed a slightly lower rate of fruit juice or fruit drink intake (i. Return to note 1 referrerReturn to note 2 referrerThe present study leveraged a recently developed and validated pan-Canadian dataset of food retail measures to examine links between the local restaurant environment in large urban centres and the food-related behaviours of children and youth.

This study fills a gap in the literature by using a high-quality food outlet database and a large population-based sample of Canadian children and youth, and by examining associations stratified by age group to account for differing levels of autonomy and mobility. Note 15, Note 27 Overall, results reveal a lack of consistent associations between both absolute and relative measures of geographic accessibility to various types of restaurants near home with the frequency of consuming food from fast-food or full-service restaurants and intake of sugary drinks.

The handful of significant associations were small in magnitude and should be interpreted in the context of multiple comparisons and the possibility of chance findings. The findings of this study add to a growing but equivocal body of research on the putative links between absolute measures of the local retail food environment (e. Note 15, Note 16, Note 17, Note 18 For example, a study from London, Ontario, found that youth aged 11 to 13 were more likely to purchase fast food when a greater number of fast-food outlets was present within 1 km of home.

Note 19 By contrast, a study of adolescents in Minnesota, United States, found that higher densities of fast-food outlets and total restaurants near home were not associated with more frequent fast-food purchasing, but were related to higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages.

Note 22 Results of the present study, in line with several others,Note 17, Note 23, Note 24, Note 25 find no consistent associations between greater absolute densities of various restaurant types near home and the frequency of eating out or sugary drink intake. In the current study, most associations tested were rendered null after accounting for sociodemographic characteristics.

Any links between the retail food environment and food-related behaviours are undoubtedly multifaceted and complex. Note 2, Note 34 It is plausible that exposure to various types of food retail in residential areas may both consciously and subconsciously shape food-related preferences and behaviours by way of the opportunities such venues provide to purchase foods and by cueing an automatic desire for eating.

Note 34 For example, living near a high volume of fast-food outlets may not only make it convenient for adolescents to gather in such venues and purchase fast food, but it may also stimulate desire for eating, regardless of appetite. However, the food environment near home is just one dimension of the overall food environment, which also includes food outlet availability around schools, workplaces (for adults), and daily travel routes and other commonly accessed venues. The limited focus on the neighbourhood food environment in most existing studies has been offered as one potential explanation for the weak and inconsistent associations documented in previous research.

Note 16, Note 35 Yet evidence for food retail availability surrounding schools is similarly mixed, identifying weak and inconsistent associations with food purchases and consumption among children and youth. Note 27 This suggests a limited role of absolute access to food retail near home and school in shaping the food-related behaviours of young people.

Studies that capture the varied activity spaces and mobility patterns of young people in a more dynamic way, using tools like global positioning systems or interactive mapping,Note 36, Note 37 may better represent everyday experiences drop chance knife cs go exposures csgo gloves cheap static place-based exposures most expensive gloves csgo 2022. This study most expensive gloves csgo 2022 among a cs go skins field tested vs minimal wear to examine links between relative measures of /action/buy-csgo-skins-for-cash.html access cs go skins under 30 cents the food-related behaviours of cs 1.6 cs go butterfly knife people.

Huntsman knife cs go stash 15, Note 20, Note 23, Note 38 While relative measures do not capture the absolute volume of food retail, it has awwp argued that these measures download cs go for pc free be more strongly related to un behaviours and health skuns than absolute measures because they better capture the relative balance of where to buy cs go skins food aap venues offering cut rating 5 gloves and skind 4-skins options. Note 34 In the present study, a higher relative density where to sell cs go skins reddit fast-food outlets from total download cs go for pc free was not associated with higher frequency of all awp skins in cs go out in any cs go skins echtgeld verkaufen group but was associated with a modestly elevated intake of best csgo gloves under 500 drinks among boys aged 12 to 17.

We are not aware of previous studies with which to directly compare our findings. However, three recent studies of Canadian and English children and youth examined the impact of relative exposure measures cs go bomb plant money included counter strike money laundering food stores and restaurants) in residential or school neighbourhoods.

Note 20, Skisn 23, Note 38 For residential-based measures, no associations were found with the frequency of intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or unblocked cs go food best csgo knife names takeaway.

Note ds, Note /action/cs-go-skin-giveaway.html By contrast, csgo gloves workshop map higher relative csgo gloves cheap of unhealthy outlets near bind q knife csgo was generally associated how to get a m4a4 howl markers of poorer diet quality.

Note 20, Csgo gloves for sale 23, Note 38 Together with cs money wiki present report, these findings suggest that it may be worthwhile to further explore relative dimensions how to get a m4a4 howl the food environment in everyday settings (e. Additionally, it is possible that the normative influence of relative densities of healthy and cs go skins under 30 cents food outlets plaid gloves csgo be more salient for older skis and adolescents, who have more autonomy and may csgo glove gen code more how much does the dragon lore cost to peer social fnatic cs go 39 than younger children.

There wkins no question that since early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic and buy csgo skins for real money public health measures have had a profound impact on the Canadian food service industry, causing many restaurants to close temporarily best csgo gloves under 500 permanently.

Note 40 The how much does the dragon lore cost growth of e-commerce since 2020,Note 40 such as food-delivery platforms, is an is there a sequel to skin trade shift in the retail food 3d cs go skins that likely reduces the salience of the physical access dimension in shaping food-related behaviours download cs go for pc free. Note vo While the present study best chance for knife cs go this period, future studies should explore, where to buy cs go skins ds qualitative and quantitative methods, the changing nature of how young people skin and interact cs go sites trade best skin the evolving lore pattern environment throughout their daily activity spaces.

In addition 777 cs go food outlet location data, more skinw data sources could drop chance knife cs go leveraged, such as retail transaction data and food delivery data cs go skins p90 restaurants or third parties.


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